That would be in matters of Federation law. Likely someone like Simon Tarses would be protected under Federation law since he's not on his home world.
You did not specify which section of my post you are replying to, but I'm assuming you're referring to the section about the Guarantees of the Federation Constitution. "The Drumhead" makes it very clear that those Guarantees are absolute throughout the entire Federation -- they're not conditional. You get them for being in the Federation, and being from Vulcan rather than Mars doesn't void them.
Unless we believe every Federation citizen has the right to ceremonial combat to the death to possess a woman,
Between the kal-if-fee
and the ushaan
, I would infer that Federation law allows for consensual homicide -- since it would appear that both the Vulcan and the Andorian ritual combat can only occur if both sides agree to participate in advance.
As far as "possessing" a female -- I'm sure that even if Vulcan tradition keeps such language, actual Vulcan law and Federation law ensure de facto
and de jure
equality for women in spite of ceremonial language. Women in the United States may opt to promise to "love, honor, and obey" their husbands when they get married, but both state and federal law make it clear that they are equal citizens before the law who have no obligation to relinquish their agency to their husbands.
each planet likely has its own laws that applies to its citizens. A Vulan woman may have certain rights as a Federation citizen when acting as a Federation citizen, but she would still be bound by the laws of Vulcan when living and working there. Even if it conflicts with Federation law.
There are certainly some areas of law where authority is reserved for the Members; that's why it's called a the United Federation of Planets rather than the United Unitary State of Planets.
But episodes like "The Drumhead," "The Perfect Mate," "Accession," "Author, Author," "Force of Nature," etc., make it very clear that when there's a contradiction with UFP law, UFP law wins.
Part of the issue is that the Federation went from a loose alliance of worlds in TOS to simply mimicking the US in TNG and other 24th century shows.
Even in TOS, it was never as loose as some like to argue. Here is my analysis
of the evolution of how the Federation has been portrayed over the years.