Wear and tear on the ol' joints?
This seems likely, or something like it. Moving fast may pose some sort of "cost" elsewhere in Data's systems. He can probably move really fast but at the cost of accuracy, it takes more of his resources to "concentrate" on moving taking resources away from "thinking." Moving fast may use up more of whatever "fuel" Data runs on or keeps his mechanisms working properly. Somewhere there's a "cost" to moving fast to make it an impractical to do it all of the time.
Whether this is just a natural flaw in the Soong-Type Android design or cost/benefit "design flaw" Soong purposefully put in in order to force Data to "behave more Human" in order to better fit in.
Wear-and-tear MAY be an issue, but likely one easily repaired given how easily other repairs are made to Data after even more severe damage.