Losing the Peace
Deranged Nasat wrote:
Voting is mentioned in Losing the Peace,
in the context of a refugee who didn't submit a vote in the last election, figuring that no matter who was in charge the Federation as a whole would go on "normally". And in the afore-mentioned Articles of the Federation
a child asks her mother who she, the mother, voted for, and concludes from the terse response that it was the losing candidate. So the issue does come up in Trek lit from time to time.
by William Leisner also features the people of Alpha Centauri voting in the affirmative on a referendum on whether or not to stay in the Federation. This inspires several other Federation Members to do the same.
... and on the flip side, Typhon Pact: Paths of Disharmony
by Dayton Ward features the people of Andor voting by a small majority in the negative on whether or not to stay in the Federation.
Typhon Pact: Raise the Dawn
by David R. George III establishes that Bajoran First Minister Asarem Wadeen won re-election after serving out the remainder of the late Shakaar's term.
The eBook Slings and Arrows: Enterprises of Great Pitch and Moment
by Keith R.A. DeCandido gives us insight into the 2372 Federation Presidential Election, in which three candidates ran: Governor Rel Obertag of Betazed, Federation Councillor Min Zife of Bolarus, and Federation President Jaresh-Inyo of Grazer. Captain Picard is established to have voted for Obertag, while Sisko is established to have been "one of the few" who voted for Jaresh-Inyo. (Apparently Obertag came in second and Jaresh-Inyo in a distant third.)
In Vanguard: Harbinger
, the first novel in that series, reporter Tim Pennington muses to himself that the Federation government hasn't provided a good explanation for why Starbase 47 in the Taurus Reach was put on the fast-track to construction, and remarks to himself that when asked, the Federation President provided such vague answers that he was surprised he had any left for his re-election campaign. This was probably Federation President Kenneth Wescott, seen in the Errand of Fury
As others have said, A Time for War, A Time for Peace
establishes how Federation Presidential Elections work. In short: Anonymous petitions for presidential candidacy are submitted to the Federation Council, which then legally certifies that these persons fit the eligibility requirements for presidential candidacy. Upon accepting candidacy, these candidates campaign for however long until the election. The Federation practices universal adult suffrage, and it can take upwards of a week to count all of the votes. The count is then verified by two independent accounting firms before being announced, though the Federation News Service is usually able to accurately estimate which candidate has received the majority of votes. In most campaigns, the candidates try to travel to as many Federation Members as possible for a good cross-section of Federation space; in the 2379 Federation Special Election, the candidates only had enough time to hit the core worlds and relied upon the media and on surrogates to reach the rest of the Federation, because there was only one month to campaign.