Voyager has "transphasic warp" (or whatever the correct term is). The Enterprise would be in fruitless pursuit, taking hit after hit of aft torpedo launches from Voyager.
Remember, we've seen the Enterprise trounced by Romulan and/or Klingon warships. We've seen both brought to near destruction by more powerful ships from other alien races. There's no tightly cohesive specification mapped out for how powerful each of these ships are. It all rests upon the story, in each series. As such, it could be written either way with Voyager or Enterprise winning... it all depends upon the context.