Individuals and groups in war have tunnel vision. It's a filtering system - filter out the unnecessary details, concentrate on the details that get you to the goal.
Combat in later Star Trek was increasingly unrealistic. In the original series, starships were battling each other at tens of thousands of kilometers. In the episode "The Ultimate Computer", the Enterprise
engaged her sister ships at 200,000 kilometers. In the later episodes, ships were engaging each other at point blank range. As shown in the TOS episode, ships had better maneuverability at this distance. And this is closer to reality where fighter jets can engage in tens of kilometers. Targeting systems adjust for the enemy's ship movements so that the fired missile can hit successfully. (The only aspect I could never understood is how the life support systems on the Excalibur
were destroyed, resulting in the death of all crew members.)
As for cloaking devices aboard Federation starships, Captain Kirk, a war veteran, told Kang that Starfleet doesn't specialize in sneak attacks. ("The Day of the Dove")