While I definitely agree with you about short tours of duty and transferring officers around, and I think that Star Trek officers should operate under the same general concepts, it's internally inconsistent with the show.
When you have officers such as Picard who commands the Stargazer for 22 years, followed by a brief hiatus and then the Enterprise-D for 8 and the Enterprise-E for another 8+ years, its inconsistent to show young officers climbing the ranks so quickly.
I would submit that onscreen evidence actually argues otherwise. We've seen that command crews in Starfleet tend to stick with a ship for the long haul, but what about all those junior officers in the background who come and go? Like Lt. DeSalle, who was around for seasons 1 & 2 of TOS and then disappeared. Or Lt. Leslie, who was gone after the first part of season 3, and Lt. Lemli, who only showed up in season 3. Or the TNG first-season chief engineers who subsequently vanished, or the various conn officers who came and went after Wesley left, sometimes for recurring stints like Allenby or Rager. And what about Crusher and Pulaski? Sure, Crusher came back for the long haul, but her first tour aboard the E-D was only a year long, and so was Pulaski's.
So if anything, the evidence shows that lower-ranking personnel in Starfleet change postings pretty frequently, while holding a single post for a long period of time is more limited to command crews. And we do have some evidence that senior officers don't always stick around for the long haul, like Crusher and Pulaski, or like Riker serving on at least two different ships in the three years before he joined Picard's crew.