I think an anthology format could work for Star Trek. After all what do you need?
A Bridge, well if you build a modular bridge as a set you can move the modules around to get a different format of bridge if you wanted, but there is no reason as to why multiple classes of ships could use the same bride. Same goes for the rest of the standing sets, Transporter Room, Corridors etc...
While I'm not against an anthology, I think it would be extremely complicated for Star Trek
to do within a reasonable budget. You'd lose your ability to really use stock footage and redressing the same set over and over would get tedious pretty quick.
The closest I was ever able to come to an anthology was an idea I had called Generation 3
, which took place across three time periods aboard the same ship and had a large overarching story about the evolution of humanity and had a single character that was present in all three time periods, the Vulcan CMO. I should see if I can find those files.