Re: officers are called 'sir'
When Trip first meets his new captain on the Columbia he actually called her ma'am. No, no, no. Senior officers are called sir regardless of gender. Wasn't there even a scene in Voyager's first episode or so where this was explained for everyone who didn't already know?
There's no reason why the protocol couldn't change over the 150+ years between Enterprise and Voyager.
Travel's fatal to prejudice, bigotry, narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things can't be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one's life.