My point is simply that they will not take a character from a terrible episode and make him into the main villain in a $200 movie. That's a stupid risk.
I don't recall "The Changeling" being terribly highly regarded either, but they recycled the concept of a robotic probe seeking its creator in "Robot's Return" (a "Genesis II" script), "In Thy Image" ("Phase II") and in ST:TMP. As a new fan to ST, with only a few TAS and fewer TOS episodes under my belt, I came to TMP with absolutely no idea that the concept had been done before. And TMP, in its day, was the Guiness Book of Records'
most expensive movie ever, surpassing "Cleopatra", IIRC. (Partly due to it carrying all the prep finances for "Phase II".)
Then, just three movies later, the renegade space probe idea was done again!
A huge risk that people who thought that TMP had been boring and recycled might walk out of the cinema when yet another mysterious, seemingly malevolent probe starts neutralizing ships and planets in ST IV.
Since the new movies are being made for the general public - and especially
for all those people who saw the 2009 movie and want to see more of those characters - I'm not sure it matters if JJ's team even use elements from "Spock's Brain", "Plato's Stepchildren" or "The Way to Eden".
Captain Garth is a formerly great starship captain who had a tragic accident that gave him bizarre superhuman powers and sent him insane. And he was seemingly admired by Kirk. In the prime timeline.
In the new timeline, altered by Nero's action just before Kirk's birth, Garth could be anyone.
There is no suggestion the film would be a TOS Season Three level adventure because a character is reused.
However, having typed all that, wasn't there originally an Orci hint that the movie's villain was someone from earlier in TOS's run? Garth's alien-granted super powers were reminiscent of Charlie X's powers anyway. Maybe B. Cumberbatch is... Charlie?
Another wild guess: maybe he's both Trelane and
Koloth, finally explaining why those characters had the same faces in TOS?