You're 100% right. The other officers were insubordinate babies, and should all have been court-martialed after returning to the ship. Their behavior was ridiculous. Insane.
Spock's soliloquy ("two men have died," etc) was weird too. Logical decisions can have bad outcomes, particularly in a situation with a lot of unknowns – Spock knows that as well as anyone.
The whole episode is annoying and demeaning.
Agreed, and this is why I never make a point of watching it. Their behavior is just so way out of line. The writer of this episode was probably angling for the "Vulcan in command" receiving discrimination, pushing on the whole "logic" over reason argument. This episode focused way too much on "logic" running decisions.
Spock was inexperienced at commanding in this kind of scenario. While worthwhile to showcase the dynamic, I also feel the writer fell short on credibility for Spock.
McCoy's incessant criticism of Spock bordering on slander is one of the worst aspects of TOS. He's a senior officer, not a country doctor, and must abide by military protocol. When a doctor gets commissioned, they are indoctrinated just like any other officer. Duty and protocol are weighed just as heavily. Kirk knocks him in line from time to time, but man... sometimes he should have come down much harder, slapping McCoy back into reality. Insulting a senior officer, especially in the midst of the crew, is absolutely unacceptable.
Now in dire situations where death seems imminent, it's understandable that someone might crack and lose restraint, but you'd expect that from a junior officer or NCO, not a senior officer.