We also have to seriously consider the possibility that the treaty banned the use of cloaking devices on both
sides. In theory, Romulans would have honored the treaty until TNG "The Neutral Zone", because they went unseen... The Feds in turn would have honored it because they went seen! Of course, both sides would probably be constantly cloaking like mad, and developing new cloaks, but as long as they didn't get caught, it wouldn't matter. And a cloak is all about not being caught in the first place.
That Romulans openly defied the treaty on several occasions after "The Neutral Zone" would not necessarily mean the Feds would be motivated to drop the treaty. It would be purely beneficial for them to keep on pretending that they are the good guys, while the cloaking programs would continue unhindered just as before. Not only would the Feds gain political points for being "trustworthy", but they could demand that the Romulans obey all the other
conditions of ToA, even when the Feds magnanimously turn a blind eye to all the cloaking going on.
The aircraft was designed for a payload of 24 nuclear tipped cruise missiles.
To nitpick, it was designed for three times eight cruise missiles of a very specific type, the AGM-86A (or, alternately, the somewhat smaller SRAM). The reason it was later unable to carry those was not because the Soviets forbade it, but because the AGM-86A was replaced by larger weapons that no longer fit inside in the 3x8 packages. And this in turn was because the B-1 had been briefly cancelled because it was felt it could not survive Soviet air defenses and thus was useless - and when it was reactivated with some modifications, the larger and better cruise missiles were already standard, the missile designers having seen no continuing reason to keep the size down.
The modified bomber could still carry a few of them, because two of the shorter weapons holds could be combined into a single longer one. So, a warload one-third that of the original design was still available. (Or then a full load of freefall nukes, or of SRAMs, but nobody wanted to risk the expensive bombers on the suicidal missions of deploying those types of weapons.)
The thing that really had the Soviets worried was not B-1, but the weapon it was going to deploy - the AGM-86B, or later the Tomahawk, and later still their even more modern cruise missile successors (some of which do fit inside a B-1 again). But those weapons could be carried in far more fearsome gaggles on the old B-52 bombers, and the B-1 with its smaller warload offered no additional threat, as it was no longer trusted with the ability to penetrate deeper into Soviet airspace.
Federation citizens and the Federation in general has adapted an appeasement policy from the get go.
Generally, if the opponent is truly interested in fighting, the only two policies available are appeasement (i.e. stop attacking at some point) and genocide (i.e. only stop when the opponent stops, that is, when there no longer is an opponent). And just because WWII made a policy of genocide (or "total victory" or whatever) the popular one doesn't mean that it would be favored in the Trek context. After all, victors in a World War can stop triumphant when they have subdued the entire planet. The UFP could only stop triumphant at subduing the entire galaxy! All other stops mean appeasement; conversely, to stop appeasing means to proceed with the genocide again.