I recently found out that gravity on any given planet is caused by the mass of the planet.
I had always assumed that gravity on a planet was caused by the speed of rotation, orbit, proximity to the sun, and size of the sun.
I began exploring why gravity didn't get stronger during its ellipse when it was closest to the sun, and less when it was far. It was googling that which lead me to realize the size of the planet was the cause of gravity.
But I am wondering, does speed of orbit and rotation play any part of planetary gravity?
No. Technically speaking, gravity is caused by the density
of a planet. If you had a planet with the same mass as Earth (the same amount of material), but spread out to the size of Jupiter, the gravity would be a great deal less, because it is less dense. However, if the planet had the same mass as Earth but was only the size of the moon, it would be denser, and therefore have a higher gravity.