Lets pretend for the sake of argument that a new series is a forgone conclusion for this thread so we don't get side tracked in to any of those sorts of logistics.
Something I have been thinking about off and on over the past few days is Star Trek tech and science would probably need an update when a new series finally manifests itself.
Here's a few things in recent science that is changing our perception of Star Trek:
"Every day" technology: Things like pads and computers are starting to dramatically make computers in Star Trek look obsolete. Sure, someone can sit back and play the devils advocate "They're probably more powerful then we ever gave it credit for", but lets be realistic, things like PADs did what the producers intended them to do --- illustrate a paperless society. Today's tablets have only begun to scratch the surface of what their potential is and they put Star Trek PADs to absolute shame.
Other technology pieces such as computer cores are also starting to look absolutely obsolete. In various scripts and/or technical manuals, computer stats were rattled off that sounded astronomic to that days standards but today's super computers actually put them to shame. In raw processing power, IBM has better computers today then Voyager's "top of the line, fresh off the assembly" computer core and its a bit smaller then 2 decks in size >.<. To make matters worse --- Star Trek computers are implied to still be using some form of a binary system where as we know in the next 10-20 years, computers will be quantum based in our society.
We haven't quite figured out things like food replicators or transporters yet, but we're certainly on our way towards figuring out if it can truly be done and current science suggests it is possible.
On the pure science part (specifically where Physics applies), we've all but ruled out faster then light travel isn't going to happen and the science behind how warp drive works has been debunked. At this point, we still have high hopes for some sort of space folding technology which, if it pans out, would make the galaxy much smaller. in terms of raw ability to transit from one place to another.
Likewise, we're finding out that the galaxy is a much more interesting place then we thought back when originally making story lines for Star Trek. Star Trek could certainly serve to allow more exploration over various phenomena.
We've also considered evolution much more since the original premier of Star Trek and have come to conclusions that suggest less and less potential intelligent life is humanoid or even bi-pedal. Technology has made it easier to represent this today and an update to how we look at different life forms would easily make for a more interesting approach.
On the medical front, I think Star Trek still manages to stay well ahead of today's sciences and doesn't seem to active contradict ayn new evidence, but there are certainly some new forms of research that would prove interesting if utlized in Star Trek and reimagined for the 24th centuary.
In other words, if Star Trek was redone today, I think it would be a very different place!