Trip Tucker said that 1940s New York City was not like the one he knew. Chekov mentioned being familiar with Moscow. Hoshi Sato was born in Kyoto and had a pen pal from Brisbane. Devinoni Ral was born in Brussels. Dr. Paul Stubbs once observed nanite production in Dakar. Lisbon was where Admiral Leyton sent Red Squad to sabotage the global power grid. Dr. Phlox attended Mass at St. Peter's Square in the Vatican, an enclave within Rome.
Just off the top of my head, I can recall references to Paris, Leningrad, and Cambridge University as well (regarding Picard, Chekov, and Data, respectively).
In general, I'm leery of applying TNG assumptions to TOS . . . or the new movie. The way I see it, the new movie was primarily based on classic STAR TREK, as opposed to the later spin-offs, so I'm not really sure why we're talking about TNG-era concepts at all.