Most of the documentaries I've seen indicate that the Egyptian Pyramids were built by free crews who held the all the Pharaohs in very high esteem and believed the structure would help him ascend to heaven, become a minor god and help them and their descendants with important things like the reliability of the river rising to irrigate and fertilize their fields. The state provided housing and food to the crews while they were participating in the construction.
Most credit ramps for the process of lifting stones to their final level, but that would have required massive additional effort and material constructing the ramp(s), especially if it was straight instead of spiraling close to the surface of the pyramid. Spiraling ramp(s) would have resulted in added challenges pulling stones around the corners.
I've seen an alternative theory using ropes under the stone and levers to lift it far enough to put a few inches of wood cribbing under it. Once supported by the cribbing the levers could be repositioned to a different knot and the process repeated until the stone was lifted enough to be shifted across adjacent stones on rollers. On the large middle and lower levels dozens of crews could have each been lifting a stone at the same time, with more crews lifting stones on the lower levels as the structure got taller. Each stone could have been lifted a layer in about half an hour by a crew of about twenty men. Large stones like those used in ceiling areas would have required larger crews with more ropes, levers and cribbing.
An alternative theory for transporting stones involved the use of lumber to assemble thick wheels around both ends of the stone and rolling it across the ground like a big heavy barrel. The larger diameter of the wheels would have been easier to pull over primitive roads than small diameter wood rollers, which might have been vulnerable to crushing under the heavy stones. With so many stones cut to a standard size the wheels could have been disassembled and carried back to the quarry for reuse.
By the time the Hebrews sought refuge in Egypt tomb looting had driven the custom to a more secretive process involving underground tunnels and chambers.
Sorry, I may have seen some of these theories before the availability of the web and don't have any links to online versions or pictures.