Here's a run-down of crew sizes mentioned in TOS and TOS Movies (TOSM).
Interestingly, in TMP, if 172 are at duty stations and if they had 3 duty shifts then the total crew should be 516, not 432. But since they were on alert because of V'ger, it could be that an extra crew shift was up as well, but that would suggest perhaps 2 crew shifts of 86 with 172 as "superfluous"... Or, they have only two shifts of 172 with 88 as "superfluous"...
e2 "Where No Man Has Gone Before"
<100 Women as part of crew
MITCHELL: With almost a hundred women onboard, you can do better than that, friend Captain.
e8 "Charlie X"
RAMART: Like a whole city in space, Charlie. Over four hundred in the crew of a starship, aren't there, Captain?
KIRK: Four hundred and twenty eight, to be exact.
e16 "The Menagerie"
203-206 Total, USS Enterprise 13 Years Prior to TOS
SPOCK: As I stated, gentlemen, this was thirteen years ago. We were on routine patrol when the ship's sensors detected something ahead. At first we were not certain what it was.
PIKE: You bet I'm tired. You bet. I'm tired of being responsible for two hundred and three lives.
e17 "Shore Leave"
MCCOY: He needs it. You've got your problems, I've got mine. He's got ours, plus his, plus four hundred and thirty other people's.
e18 "The Squire of Gothos"
KIRK: There are four hundred men and women aboard that ship.
e20 "The Alternative Factor"
KIRK: Lazarus, you're hurt. I know. I sympathize, but I've got four hundred and thirty other men to worry about.
e21 "Tomorrow is Yesterday"
MCCOY: There are four hundred and thirty of us, and that means four hundred and thirty chances of altering the future.
e23 "A Taste of Armageddon"
ANAN: Are those five hundred people of yours more important than the hundreds of millions of innocent people on Eminiar and Vendikar?
e26 "The Devil in the Dark"
~100 Security Troops including Kirk and Spock
KIRK: You may be right, Doctor, but at least it's something to go on. Mister Spock, have Lieutenant Commander Giotto assemble the security troops and arm them with phaser number two. You make the proper adjustments. You seem fascinated by this rock.
SPOCK: Captain, there are approximately one hundred of us engaged in this search, against one creature.
e33 "Who Mourns for Adonais"
KIRK: I have four hundred and thirty people on that ship up there.
e35 "The Doomsday Machine"
401 Total for USS Constellation
DECKER: Don't you think I know that? There was, but not anymore. They called me. They begged me for help, four hundred of them. I couldn't.
e36 "Wolf in the Fold"
<440 Total including visitors from planet below
SPOCK: Indeed, it will try, but not immediately. We know it feeds on fear and terror. There are nearly four hundred and forty humans aboard this ship. Surely it will try to breed fear and terror before it kills.
e38 "The Apple.htm"
400 On Ship with Kirk's party below
KIRK: You're fired. Four hundred people
<400 Total for USS Farragut, 11 Years Prior to TOS
SPOCK: Fortunately, I read somewhat faster. In brief, Doctor, nearly half the crew and the captain were annihilated. The captain's name was Garrovick.
MCCOY: Am I? I was speaking of Lieutenant James T. Kirk of the starship Farragut. Eleven years ago, you were the young officer
at the phaser station when something attacked. According to the tapes, this young Lieutenant Kirk insisted upon blaming himself.
KIRK: Don't you understand? It killed two hundred crewmen.
e48 "The Immunity Syndrome"
400 Total for USS Intrepid
SPOCK: Captain, the Intrepid. It just died. And the four hundred Vulcans aboard, all dead.
e49 "A Piece of the Action"
KIRK: There are over four hundred guys there.
e53 "The Ultimate Computer"
430 Total for USS Enterprise, ~400 per ship in wargame fleet
DAYSTROM: It takes four hundred thirty people to man a starship. With this, you don't need anyone. One machine can do all those things they send men out to do now.
KIRK: There's your murder charge. Deliberate. Calculated. It's killing men and women. Four starships, sixteen hundred men and women!
e54 "The Omega Glory"
> 400 Total, USS Exeter
CAPTAIN'S LOG: What could have happened to him and the over four hundred men and women who were on this ship?
e60 "And the Children Shall Lead"
SPOCK: Captain, the four hundred and thirty men and women on board the Enterprise and the ship itself are endangered by these children.
e66 "The Day of The Dove"
430 Total, as 38 Are not trapped
SCOTT: Three hundred and ninety two trapped below decks.
e72 "The Mark of Gideon"
KIRK: I seem to be the only one of my crew left on board the Enterprise. Four hundred and thirty, and I, apparently, am the only one left.
KIRK: Well, let's see. Power, that's no problem, it regenerates. And food. We have enough to feed a crew of four hundred and thirty for five years.
e73 "The Lights of Zetar"
MCCOY: Lieutenant, there are four hundred and thirty people aboard this ship. You're the only one that passed out, and I want to know why.
TOSM1 "The Motion Picture"
432 Total, Before Ilia was replaced by probe. 430 Total, End of Movie.
COMPUTER VOICE: Crew status is one seven two at duty stations, two four eight off duty, eleven in sickbay, all minor, Over.
TOSM6 "The Undiscovered Country":
> 300 since there still had to be crew left to man their stations
VALERIS: None. We have got a crew of three hundred turning their own quarters inside out, but the killers may still be among them. Surely they have disposed of these boots by now. Would it not have been logical to have left them on Gorkon's ship?