Both Ta'ithan factions are devoutly religious.
The Preservationists have a mindset and worldview that integrates science and religion.
The Deconstructors have a mindset and worldview that reduces religion to superstition.
When I read the book I could see the Preservationists standing in for the Religious people in the real world (Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, etc.) but then I saw the Deconstructors representing the Aetheists/Aegeists. But instead of discussing the matter civilly, it was almost like the author had you at gun point while trying to discuss the issue. It was very badly done.