An answer to your question would be speculative at best, but the Borg remove components, or, transport the disabled Drone (probably} back to their Ship, and an analysis is done. Subsequently, resolutions are established and "resistance is futile".
Besides Icheb and Hugh, there have been other instances where the Borg have been disabled, but, it just wouldn't be good script, if they weren't a persistent threat. Star Fleet has a reputation of bypassing/not pursuing technologies, which would elevate their "presence" when it comes to defending themselves in the Space Community. So, why force the issue of creating another component of threat.