But it would take the same length of time for the Bozeman to go through one entire loop as it did for the Enterprise.
Why? There's no inherent need for this as such, as the loop is taking place in the 24th century. The number of loops needs to be the same, but the length need not, as the Bozeman
isn't within the "zone of influence" of the loop for most of the time the E-D is. It would be a bit different if the Bozeman
were a regular starship from the 24th century...
As for Riker's decision not to turn back, it's certainly illogical. It's also somewhat consistent for his character to suggest such weird things - and for Picard to accept Riker's recommendation over that of others in situations where there is no objective order of preference. Which makes it a bit odd that Picard initially favors Data's recommendation in dealing with the collision itself!