In the book 'Ship of the Line', they try to explain what happened from the Bozeman POV.
The ship was in a fight with a klingon ship. Going badly, the Bozeman began looking for a place to hide. They found what appeared to be a 'cloud' of energy. Being tailed by the klingons, they went in. It appeared to be some kind of localized distortion. They suddenly lost power and without warning they had passed through the cloud. The klingons were gone. They begin to figure out what had happened to them, getting as far as stating it was a temporal distortion when sensors indicated another ship, a 'moving mountain'. Without power, they could not move. From their POV, the Enterprise D had suddenly veered off, narrowly avoiding a collision. They never experienced a time loop.
Hope this helps. I dug around for a while looking for this book. Glad I still have it. A pretty good story, I think.