Nope, not canon as such. Admittedly, all we have seen is duels with melee weapons, but Worf vs. Duras at least was fought with dissimilar swords. Duras opted for a two-handed, two-edged single straight blade there. And Worf often practiced dueling with just his short mek'leth. We have also seen various types of spear - and Worf in "Birthright" seems to be saying not just that the gin'tak is a weapon of war rather than a farm implement, but that it is still being used for fighting.
Whether ranged weapons could be used for dueling, we don't know. But each side chooses its own weapons, it seems. Perhaps honor concerns discourage either side from picking a weapon that might prove too superior to what the opposition will pick, and thus subject the overarmed duelist to ridicule?
In "The House of Quark", the willingness of D'Ghor to kill a Quark unable to defend himself against a trained warrior out for blood was enough to discredit him to the entire Klingon council.
Klingon society has
to have mechanisms in place to prohibit the killing of n00bs.