Interesting. I just checked out the script, and apparently the Stargazer DID originally fire a barrage of weapons at the Enterprise after being seized by the tractor beam.
Shame they took that part out.
No budget for the special effect?
Probably. Either that or the ships were so close in the final shot that there just wasn't room for any phaser or torpedo fire.
Speaking of which, it still cracks me up to see Picard in the Conference Room describing this difficult, super-sophisticated battle maneuver... with just an average, modern day ballpoint pen.