Vettel should get a stop-go penalty which should abot 30 seconds to his time, at minimum it should be a drive through about 20 seconds.
Vettel clearly had a faster car than Jenson, but if he had tucked in behind him he might have been able to pass him on that straight after the hairpin. Though I won't be surprised if no penalty is awarded. They might argue that Lewis overtook Rosberg of the racing line a few races back.
As for the safety car, it was perhaps marginal as to whether or not they should have brought it out, but if they bring it for debris on the racing line at one circut they should do it avery circut in the intrests of consitancy. (Though thy have been better at this in recent years)
Vettel was also complaining about Lewis unlapping himself, there is no rule that says a driver can't unlap himself. Lewis had a faster car (damaged) car at that point.
Though whilst Alonso doesn't have to let Lewis pass I think he should have done, as battling with Lewis could cause him to lose time or risk a coming together. Lewis wouldn't be able to hold up Alonso, because if he tried he would have been blue flagged.