Why is the bridge situated atop the ship instead of more safely imbedded within the ship itself?
I could be putting myself in trouble here but I believe this is cannon. The bridge located on top of the ship has special shield parameters to protect it from incoming and from other parts of the ship. The engineers eventually deduce the fact that it makes little difference if the area is multy shielded and the enemy would get it anyway if it located more internally.
Kirks fight with Khan nothing was mentioned about less security of the bridge. If Khan got the edge, though, that was the last of Enterprise.
To see where one is going may have some viability but starships rely on sensors. Today the astronauts will be completely blind with their capsule in space and must rely on sensors.