Hmm... I for one think that the very alertness of Starfleet is what made them misjudge so badly. Had there been complacency or self-assurance rather than this terrifying certainty that the Cardassians were up to something, a more objective reaction to the metagenics disinformation might have followed.
As I see it, a more measured approach is usually taken by people who are prepared for an enemy, & therefore expect more strategy. Whereas, haphazard or hasty plans are thrown together by people who have been lax, & are suddenly in a position to have to deal with an unanticipated threat. Haphazard, like pulling the flagship commander from his command & rushing his minimal team into an ill-advised recon mission trap, into what otherwise would have been considered enemy territory, instead of just a treaty violating border crossing
Had they followed up openly & vigilantly, on the events Maxwell had uncovered, it's possible that the relationship between the two militaries would've been more conflictual, prompting either Starfleet to be more strategic about their plan, or perhaps more forceful about addressing it properly, or it would have altogether created an environment where the Cardies never would have been willing to hatch the ruse to begin with & risk a militaristic response
Apparently "We'll be watching" wasn't good enough. They needed to be doing something about, imo