Ok Ron, here we go - for this scenario, I'm going to go slightly outside the realm of episodic TOS, but you should still be familiar with all the elements -
You are President of the United Federation of Planets. (way to go, Ron!). Starfleet Intelligence comes to you with the following information - the chancellor of the Klingon Empire has died (or been killed) and there are 2 candidates vying to replace him. One of the candidates is named Gorkon. He is not from the warrior caste, but he has an impressive combat record and is well respected in the Empire. He has made overtures to the Federation in regards to making a lasting peace - he doesn't believe the Empire can go on in its war-like state. There is a real opportunity with him in power to end the hostilities between the Klingons and the Federation.
The other candidate is K'reel. He is of the warrior caste, and has violently risen through the ranks. He also comes from a well respected and connected family. He has a 15 year old son. K'reel believes that the Klingon Empire has been humilitated, and he wants to go to war with the Federation to regain Klingon honor. He has vowed to fight to the last man, woman and child if necessary to regain that honor. If he becomes chancellor, he, and/or his son, if anything should happen to K'reel, will go to war in a matter of weeks - and it will be devestaing to the Alpha Quadrant. The Klingon high council, in addition with many of the Klingon people, support K'reel.
Starfleet Intelligence has a plan - they have worked out a way to get an operative close to K'reel and kill him AND his 15 year old son. The son has to die in order to end K'reel's family's claim on the chancellorship. They have worked it out so that K'reel and his son's death will looked to have been accomplished by Gorkon and/ or his supporters, and since this is a norm in Klingon politics, it will not cause major repercussions.
Here is your question, Mr. President - do you ok the operation to murder K'reel and his son, forswearing yourself by interfering in another culture solely to protect Federation interests? True, billions may be saved, but you would be undermining and going against everything the Federation stands for, and everything that you and your office supposedly represent. Or do you let things play out, have K'reel become chancellor, and face a devestating war? Don't forget, there is always a small chance that the plot will be found out, and you will be at war with the Klingons in any case.
Your decision, Mr. President, Starfleet Intelligence only has a short window to accomplish the plan if you decide to ok it.
Have at it!