Noting that divergances started with the Kelvin Encounter. Most probably they would have been comparitively minor to start with (different people who lived or died, ship redeployments and policy changes in response, etc.), but they would have added up over time.
One thing that very obviously came out of all this were delays in at least some Star Fleet construction. We only know that the Enterprise was built much later than canon, but was this an indicator of something happening in Star Fleet as a whole? Insufficient data, but I suspect yes.
Perhaps this delay was to incorporate new technology. I don't doubt that a few snippets of useful data could
have been gleaned from the survivors and the shuttle systems. Given twenty-plus years of even tentative R&D, plus whatever else happened in the Galaxy anyhow, there could have been a few breakthroughs that happened earlier than canon.
Short story - whatever happened (or did not happen) at Talos IV was quite different. Presumably a different ship and crew, and Pike may not have been a part of the events there..