The Federation generally isn't happy that the Cardassians are there. How do they know? It should be easy to guess, consider their methods of study, but if you can't--it will be explained
Jarol needs more shaking than what Toral told her, but it's a start. At least--someone is shaking her. Laran can't do it effectively, especially since she doesn't tell him about her nightmares.
The whole battle scene was just for Aladar comforting one of his bookworm scene
I had that scene for a looong time in my head and just had to make it happen