The only serious bit of evidence pointing to Starfleet being a 22nd century creation is the "Horizon" one:
Archer: "There was a time when I gave serious thought to serving on a cargo ship."
Mayweather: "You, Sir?"
Archer: "It was a few years before Starfleet was chartered."
Mayweather: "Why didn't you sign up?"
Archer: "Long story."
Perhaps Archer is being truthful and serious here - but even in that case, he might have considered the cargo ship service at the ripe age of four or so, in the 2110s.
Alternately, Archer might be taking Travis' incredulous "You, Sir?" personally. If the helmsman didn't believe Archer would have been capable of anything else besides a Starfleet career, perhaps he should be made aware of the built-in insult by giving him a bogus "rationale" for Archer's failure to become a Starfleet officer straight from the crib...