All 200+ governments (in the Earth example) are invited to the initial meetings with the Contact Team. HOG (Heads of Government) and HOS (Heads of State) level only, no lower; No staff, no notes, no recordings.
If the Eternal President Kim Il-sung was at the meeting, President Obama and Prime Minister Naoto Kan wouldn't be. North Korea "claims" South Korea, will the Federation request South Korea not attend? Would the Federation put up with
the exclusion of President Ma Ying-jeou, and if he is there then China leaves in a huff. What about all the other countries "claimed" by The People's Republic of China.
The President of the Tibetan government-in-exile, the Dalai Lama, might enjoy a chair at this meeting. Unless the Federation would care to formal recognize the conquest of that nation.
If Kosovo in, then Serbia out. The presents of the Israeli HOS and HOG might result in a dozen absent countries. Add to this the fact that Heads of States of western nations tend to be closely monitored by the people they work for, if this is going to be a "secret" meeting, then the top political leadership are the last people you would want present. Also these leaders might not look kindly upon being simply summoned. Is the President of the Federation going to be at this meeting too (not an impossibility Penta)?
I always found it odd that the Starfleet Captain of whatever series could just call a planet's leader and have them jump on the line in a moment notice.
It seems to me that having official lower level representatives in attendance would make much more sense.
Contact, thus, is established with every government. Interaction, on the other hand, is limited to a subset.
This is basically what I was talking about.
How do you thing the Federation would handle The New Race basically saying no thanks? Remember The New Race (TNR) does possess a warp drive now, they might listen attentively and politely to the Federation's proposition and promptly come back with one of the own. Would the Federation be prepared to be flexible in the face of TNR's counter-offer? TNR isn't a little group of natives on some chain of islands in the ocean. If they can create a warp drive we're talking most likely about a planet full of industrial and economic powers.
Continuing the hypothetical of modern Earth with warp propulsion, separately both America and Russia might be willing to strike out on their own path, especially if they figure that the Federation would remain as a fall back option. Japan and China would see if they could work it both ways, and the EU would promptly make a decision in only a couple of decades. What good would it do for the Federation to assemble most of the nations in one big room, if the one, two or three nations actually operating the warp drive aren't present? The US might send the deputy under-secretary of agriculture. Russia, under Putin, increasingly is feeling their oats again. Japan also could be looking for some (political) expansion.
If TNR has something to trade, dilithuim crystals are always fun, and can reach the next Federation member over, what then? They have warp drive so the prime directive doesn't apply anymore. Would the Federation government try to restrict what could be traded with TNR until they were "ready?"
Remember Penta, T'Girl doesn't feel that the Federation government exercises internal sovereignty over it members. TNR could fast track itself using those crystals, going independently to local Federation and non-Federation star systems. Look how much slack Ardana was cut because it was the likely sole trading source of the mineral zenite. A mutual defense pact with their neighbors home fleets, an information data base, technology, all the goodies - none of the waiting.
Keeping chocolate out of the hands of a child in one thing, keeping it ot of the hands of a adult with a car and their own money is another.
TNR (like it or not) are adults.
Lastly, we both seem to be making the assumption that TNR even has countries. They might not possess the Human territorial thing. Just because we formed into political unit, doesn't automatically mean others will.
What if then?