"What kind of biological basis would produce a non-dysfunctional sexual politic?" I came up with one for Deltans, since that's their whole deal, but that's pretty outre and also probably of limited interest.
How about "Was the Federation and Starfleet integrated from the beginning, or was it a slow process that culminated sometime after Journey to Babel?" There's a lot of evidence suggesting that the UESPA was the real highest authority for the Enterprise crew, and that the Federation was much more of confederation or even a mere community in TOS. Also, the 100% lack of aliens on the Enterprise--and don't cite Spock, he's a United Earth citizen unless Amanda renounced her