It's actually quite different from WoW. In WoW you gain levels and this is how you earn skill points. In STO you gain skill points and how many you apply determines your rank. There are no levels as such.
I was more referring to the assigning of different points to different skills. But if this is how you "level up" so to speak, they really should consider adding more to it. I wonder if you get demoted for shooting a fellow crew member...