Great work, Preator. This was a great way to spend a Sunday morning. Although I'll admit I skipped over all of the grammatical nitpickings by a certain poster ;-)
Anyway, I can't add too much at this point, but I will grab all my tech manuals I've accumulated over the years and see if I can add something... but I do have one thing I'd like to add...
There was some confusion regarding the size of the "starfleet" itself. I did a little bit of research, and I'd like to cite actual historical precedence for the size of a fleet...
Currently, the US Navy has a fleet of approximately 400 vessels. This includes active ships, ships on reserve, and ships under construction. The known registered ship count breaks down as follows:
11 aircraft carriers, 22 cruisers, 55 destroyers, two littoral combat ships, 31 frigates, 11 amphibious assault ships, two amphibious command ships, 13 amphibious transport docks, 12 dock landing ships, 53 attack submarines, 14 ballistic missile submarines, 4 guided missile submarines, 14 mine countermeasures ships, 8 patrol boats, and 1 technical research ship
Support ships include two hospital ships, four salvage ships, two submarine tenders, four ammunition ships, five combat stores ships, four fast combat support ships, nine dry cargo ships, 15 replenishment oilers, four Fleet Ocean Tugs, four ocean surveillance ships, four container ships, 16 cargo ships (used for pre-positioning of Marine and Army materiel), and seven vehicle cargo ships (also used for prepositioning)
Given those numbers, and the fact this count is for a single nation on a single planet with a couple million crewmen, it is certainly feasible that the Federation, with 150+ member planets, could certainly have a fleet of 800+ Excelsior class vessels... afterall, space is INFINITELY larger than the oceans and seas of Earth.
It's also feasible, that given the scope and scale of the Federation at the time of the Excelsior-class, ships could be rather spread out, as I'm sure Starfleet stations multiple vessels at each port of call, similar to what the US Navy does. And remember too, just because the canon of Trek has focused heavily on Starfleet in San Francisco and construction of ships around Earth, it is certainly conceivable that Starfleet has auxiliary development and construction facilities spread throughout the territory controlled by the Federation.
Furthermore, it would be believable that given the wealth of resources of 150 member planets, and Starfleet could be constructing HUNDREDS of vessels at a single time, given the fact that the US Navy, with their limited resources, has between 10 and 15 vessels under construction at any point in time (obviously great accelerated during wartime).
For reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...ed_States_Navy
Once again, great work, and I hope I can help contribute to this fantastic document!
But now it's time to go play golf :-)
EDIT: From the TNG Technical Manual published in 1991:
"The third Enterprise, NCC-1701-B, was an Excelsior-class ship built at Starfleet's Antares Ship Yards. Although the decision to model this ship on the failed experimental Excelsior was at the time controversial, the economics of using the existing (and otherwise successful) engineering of the basic spaceframe were compelling. The wisdom of this decision has been corne out by the large number of Excelsior-class starships that still serve Starfleet in a variety of capacities. (Indeed, the Excelsior herself ultimately proved to be a distinguishhed part of the Starfleet.) The third Enterprise was a key figure in the exploration of space beyond the Gourami Sector. The ship and her crew were responsible for mapping over 142 star systems, including first contact with seventeen civilizations."