I'm sure the phasers have different modes of operation. The Kelvin seems to have seperate emitters for pulsed and beam weapons. Its logical to assume that the Enterprise, being a next-generation ship, has phaser emitters with both these capabilities. It seems as though the phasers were being used as point-defense weapons in that shot, tearing into the fighters/missiles/drones from the Narada. It is entirely possibly that the Enterprise can and would switch over to beam mode when taking on a larger ship.
Wait and see.