Or First Contact, where the E-E seemingly got from the Romulan border to Earth within a few minutes.
The way I make sense of it is that the battle started further out from Earth than what we first saw in the movie, like Starfleet engaging the Borg at Wolf 359. Except Starfleet ships had made great improvements since then and thus, although being no more effective aggressively, were able to last much longer against the Cube than the first attack. We just missed the prolonged battle in between Enterprise setting course and them arriving at the battle because it would have taken too long to show.
Of course, this idea may not stand up too well under close scrutiny but it's how I fanwank it.