Then again, we should remember that the Borg are using time travel to retroactively change history. This carries a clear implication: they can do it again, and again, and again, until they get it right, or destroy themselves so that they can't make another attempt.
Since the Borg still exist at the conclusion of the movie (as established in VOY), we must therefore conclude that the Borg mission in ST:FC was a complete success.
And, really, it looks like one. There we have this deluded hillbilly from Earth who couldn't put together a warp drive even if a 24th century engineer showed him how. But now the Borg lure that engineer, along with his entire staff
, to help the hillbilly "rebuild" his piece of junk into a warpship - and lo, the technological miracle that is the Federation is given a kickstart.
It probably didn't happen all at once, during a single loop. What we witness might be the ninety-fourth loop, with LaForge's contribution now limited to making small refinements to Cochrane's design rather than building it from scratch. After this final loop, the iterative process is complete, and the ship that Cochrane designs will be the same that LaForge learned about at school, and hence the ship that LaForge helps Cochrane build.
What would originally have been a cesspool of stagnated cultures, with the low-tech Romulans and Klingons fighting ankle deep in the ashes of the Vulcan civilization, now becomes a unified high-tech Federation, an endless source of quality assimilables for the Collective.