Sorry, no. I refuse to cede the word to the neo-brownshirts who insist you must wear a lapel flag pin or else risk being branded a traitor.
That's what I think is wrong with the world today: your refusal (or mine) has no power over anything. Call yourself patriot in any context, and your NRA member card or Little Red/Green/Black Book materializes out of thin air and sticks to your hand, which automatically and inevitably extends in a military salute.
I mean, think about the practical aspects of this: how can
you call yourself "patriotic" in public without the above consequences? What would be the practical circumstances where that would be possible?
In terms of relative power, they aren't. But it's pretty clear that both Capella and the Klingon Empire are sovereign states, possessing a defined territory, the power to make compulsory law within their territory, and the legal monopoly on the use of violence within their territory. Legally, they're both states.
But we have already agreed that there's no inter-powers law or rule above the level of major powers such as the UFP or the Klingon Empire. "Legal" sort of loses its meaning in a situation where there is no agreement over what constitutes a law...
In this practical example, I find it hard, nay, impossible to believe that the Klingon Empire would recognize Capellan sovereignity or monopoly for use of military force, even when the UFP might. Planets with precious raw materials and primitive militaries on them are just prey, not nations, to players like Klingons - even when said Klingons may perfectly well recognize the "nationhood" of honorable and substantial opponents, and play by the associated rules there.
That's always been part of the real-world setup as well, of course - the sovereignty of a nation or parts thereof is not for it or them to decide, but for the de facto
most powerful player in the region, as demonstrated over the past few years in various parts. It would just be several degrees more extreme in the Trek universe.
We don't know yet whether the UFP would believe in some sort of equal rights for all "nations" (which I guess means any at least planetwide unified culture). We do have reason to suspect that the UFP would be alone in this among the major Trek players, though.