In VOY "Flashback", Janeway claims that Kirk and friends didn't have replicators back in ST6. We don't know how literally Janeway should be taken there, though; it's perfectly possible that even Kirk's TOS ship was equipped with devices based on the replicator principle, even though the devices that made Kirk's meals may have been more primitive.
There are no direct references to replicator use aboard the E-B, E-C or Stargazer
or any of the other older vessels that made an appearance in TNG stories. Then again, the TNG food replicator prop was used for decorating Kirk's cabin in ST6. Probably it was playing the demanding role of a simple storage cabinet there, though.
So essentially I'm just blabbing, and the answer still remains "between ST6 and TNG and we don't know more".