Well, if the probe were draining all power from the ships, bases and planets in the area, it would seem likely that any attempt at an EVA would be doomed, as the power used to control the person's movement would be disabled. And we know that Spock has to be in physical contact with the subject in order to establish good two-way communication.
As for the universal translator being an option for communicating with the probe, that's a good point. If the whalesong is supposed to be an actual form of language that allows for conversation between the probe and the whales, it would seem the UT should be able to translate it.
But, as we know, the UT is a rather ambiguous concept that has come and gone and changed dramatically with the needs of the plot. It's ranged from a hand-held device used for specific needs to something embedded in a communicator that is constantly providing translation to apparently being completely forgotten and unused such as in TVH and TUC. So who knows what it can or can't do?